Journal Articles, Monographs & More

ILSI entities around the world publish articles on original research, literature reviews and gap analyses, as well as meeting proceedings in peer-reviewed journals. Not one of the thousands of studies ILSI has published in peer-reviewed journals over the last 40+ years has ever been retracted. ILSI also publishes books, monographs, white papers, other scientific reports, annual reports and newsletters.
ILSI's flawless scientific publication track record, its commitment to the highest scientific standards and its adherence to rigorous scientific principles demonstrate its scientific integrity.
ILSI's publications are listed below by publication date, from the newest article to the oldest. You can also filter the list by title or publication type.

 

All Publications

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Food Contaminants Task Force

FOOD RELATED CONTAMINANTS

The "totality" of the human exposure is conceived to encompass life-associated endogenous and exogenous aggregate exposures. Process-related contaminants (PRCs) are not only formed in foods by heat processing, but also occur endogenously in the organism as physiological components of energy metabolism, potentially also generated by the human microbiome. To arrive at a comprehensive risk assessment, it is necessary to understand the contribution of in vivo background occurrence as compared to the ingestion from exogenous sources. Hence, this review provides an overview of the knowledge on the contribution of endogenous exposure to the overall exposure to putative genotoxic food contaminants, namely ethanol, acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, acrylamide, acrolein, α,β-unsaturated alkenals, glycation compounds, N-nitroso compounds, ethylene oxide, furans, 2- and 3-MCPD, and glycidyl esters. The evidence discussed herein allows to conclude that endogenous formation of some contaminants appears to contribute substantially to the exposome. This is of critical importance for risk assessment in the cases where endogenous exposure is suspected to outweigh the exogenous one (e.g. formaldehyde and acrolein).

Link to download the full-text

Keywords Expand

Endogenous exposure; Exposome; Genotoxins; Process-related contaminants

[post_title] => The role of endogenous versus exogenous sources in the exposome of putative genotoxins and consequences for risk assessment [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => the-role-of-endogenous-versus-exogenous-sources-in-the-exposome-of-putative-genotoxins-and-consequences-for-risk-assessment [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2022-06-15 03:51:00 [post_modified_gmt] => 2022-06-15 07:51:00 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://ilsi.org/?post_type=publication&p=31801 [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publication [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [1] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 31872 [post_author] => 24 [post_date] => 2022-04-07 11:28:06 [post_date_gmt] => 2022-04-07 15:28:06 [post_content] =>

Health Benefits Assessment of Foods

GUT MICROBIOME AND HEALTH

We performed a systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression to determine if increasing daily protein ingestion contributes to gaining lean body mass (LBM), muscle strength, and physical/functional test performance in healthy subjects. A protocol for the present study was registered (PROSPERO, CRD42020159001), and a systematic search of Medline, Embase, CINAHL, and Web of Sciences databases was undertaken. Only randomized controlled trials (RCT) where participants increased their daily protein intake and were healthy and non-obese adults were included. Research questions focused on the main effects on the outcomes of interest and subgroup analysis, splitting the studies by participation in a resistance exercise (RE), age (<65 or ≥65 years old), and levels of daily protein ingestion. Three-level random-effects meta-analyses and meta-regressions were conducted on data from 74 RCT. Most of the selected studies tested the effects of additional protein ingestion during RE training. The evidence suggests that increasing daily protein ingestion may enhance gains in LBM in studies enrolling subjects in RE (SMD [standardized mean difference] = 0.22, 95% CI [95% confidence interval] 0.14:0.30, P < 0.01, 62 studies, moderate level of evidence). The effect on LBM was significant in subjects ≥65 years old ingesting 1.2-1.59 g of protein/kg/day and for younger subjects (<65 years old) ingesting ≥1.6 g of protein/kg/day submitted to RE. Lower-body strength gain was slightly higher by additional protein ingestion at ≥1.6 g of protein/kg/day during RE training (SMD = 0.40, 95% CI 0.09:0.35, P < 0.01, 19 studies, low level of evidence). Bench press strength is slightly increased by ingesting more protein in <65 years old subjects during RE training (SMD = 0.18, 95% CI 0.03:0.33, P = 0.01, 32 studies, low level of evidence). The effects of ingesting more protein are unclear when assessing handgrip strength and only marginal for performance in physical function tests. In conclusion, increasing daily protein ingestion results in small additional gains in LBM and lower body muscle strength gains in healthy adults enrolled in resistance exercise training. There is a slight effect on bench press strength and minimal effect performance in physical function tests. The effect on handgrip strength is unclear.

To download this open-access article, please click here.

This work was commissioned by the Health Benefits Assessment of Foods Task Force.

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Packaging Materials Task Force

SMART PACKAGING

There are numerous approaches and methodologies for assessing the identity and quantities of non-intentionally added substances (NIAS) in food contact materials (FCMs). They can give different results and it can be difficult to make meaningful comparisons. The initial approach was to attempt to prepare a prescriptive methodology but as this proved impossible; this paper develops guidelines that need to be taken into consideration when assessing NIAS. Different approaches to analysing NIAS in FCMs are reviewed and compared. The approaches for preparing the sample for analysis, recommended procedures for screening, identification, and quantification of NIAS as well as the reporting requirements are outlined. Different analytical equipment and procedures are compared. Limitations of today's capabilities are raised along with some research needs.

Link to download the full-text

Keywords Expand

Food contact materials; NIAS; chromatographic methods; food packaging; migration; non-intentionally added substances; plastics

[post_title] => Guidance in selecting analytical techniques for identification and quantification of non-intentionally added substances (NIAS) in food contact materials (FCMS) [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => guidance-in-selecting-analytical-techniques-for-identification-and-quantification-of-non-intentionally-added-substances-nias-in-food-contact-materials-fcms [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2022-06-15 03:54:30 [post_modified_gmt] => 2022-06-15 07:54:30 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://ilsi.org/?post_type=publication&p=31803 [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publication [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [3] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 31549 [post_author] => 24 [post_date] => 2022-03-28 09:12:46 [post_date_gmt] => 2022-03-28 13:12:46 [post_content] =>

Early Nutrition and Long-Term Health

Nutrition and Brain Health

Nutrition, Immunity and Inflammation

Prebiotics

Probiotics

GUT MICROBIOME AND HEALTH

The gut and brain link via various metabolic and signalling pathways, each with the potential to influence mental, brain and cognitive health. Over the past decade, the involvement of the gut microbiota in gut-brain communication has become the focus of increased scientific interest, establishing the microbiota-gut-brain axis as a field of research. There is a growing number of association studies exploring the gut microbiota's possible role in memory, learning, anxiety, stress, neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. Consequently, attention is now turning to how the microbiota can become the target of nutritional and therapeutic strategies for improved brain health and well-being. However, while such strategies that target the gut microbiota to influence brain health and function are currently under development with varying levels of success, still very little is yet known about the triggers and mechanisms underlying the gut microbiota's apparent influence on cognitive or brain function and most evidence comes from pre-clinical studies rather than well controlled clinical trials/investigations. Filling the knowledge gaps requires establishing a standardised methodology for human studies, including strong guidance for specific focus areas of the microbiota-gut-brain axis, the need for more extensive biological sample analyses, and identification of relevant biomarkers. Other urgent requirements are new advanced models for in vitro and in vivo studies of relevant mechanisms, and a greater focus on omics technologies with supporting bioinformatics resources (training, tools) to efficiently translate study findings, as well as the identification of relevant targets in study populations. The key to building a validated evidence base rely on increasing knowledge sharing and multi-disciplinary collaborations, along with continued public-private funding support. This will allow microbiota-gut-brain axis research to move to its next phase so we can identify realistic opportunities to modulate the microbiota for better brain health.

To download this open-access article, please click here.

This work was conducted in collaboration with the Early Nutrition and Long-Term Health, Nutrition and Brain Health, Nutrition, Immunity and Inflammation, Prebiotics and Probiotics Task Forces.

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Food Contaminants Task Force

FOOD RELATED CONTAMINANTS

The "totality" of the human exposure is conceived to encompass life-associated endogenous and exogenous aggregate exposures. Process-related contaminants (PRCs) are not only formed in foods by heat processing, but also occur endogenously in the organism as physiological components of energy metabolism, potentially also generated by the human microbiome. To arrive at a comprehensive risk assessment, it is necessary to understand the contribution of in vivo background occurrence as compared to the ingestion from exogenous sources. Hence, this review provides an overview of the knowledge on the contribution of endogenous exposure to the overall exposure to putative genotoxic food contaminants, namely ethanol, acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, acrylamide, acrolein, α,β-unsaturated alkenals, glycation compounds, N-nitroso compounds, ethylene oxide, furans, 2- and 3-MCPD, and glycidyl esters. The evidence discussed herein allows to conclude that endogenous formation of some contaminants appears to contribute substantially to the exposome. This is of critical importance for risk assessment in the cases where endogenous exposure is suspected to outweigh the exogenous one (e.g. formaldehyde and acrolein).

Link to download the full-text

Keywords Expand

Endogenous exposure; Exposome; Genotoxins; Process-related contaminants

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