Journal Articles, Monographs & More

ILSI entities around the world publish scientific articles on original research, literature reviews and gap analyses, as well as meeting proceedings in peer-reviewed journals and publications. Not one of the 1,000+ articles that ILSI has published over the last 45 years has ever been retracted. ILSI also publishes books, monographs, white papers, other scientific reports, annual reports and newsletters.

ILSI's flawless scientific publication track record, its commitment to the highest scientific standards and its adherence to rigorous scientific principles demonstrate its scientific integrity.

ILSI's publications are listed below by publication date, from the newest article to the oldest. You can also filter the list by title or publication type.

Journal Articles

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A systematic review was conducted on the efficacy of interventions to improve physical activity. PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science were scanned for eligible studies published from 1978 to August 2021, resulting in a total of 52 relevant studies for review. The Downs and Black checklist was used as a quality assessment tool for risk of bias assessment. The 52 studies were then broadly categorised into three major approach types: informational, behavioural and/or social, as well as direct. Within each major approach, studies were further sub-categorised into more specific intervention types before being assessed for their efficacy and applicability. Overall, the intervention types that seemed to be the most efficacious in increasing physical activity levels were those that involved home-based information provision, community-wide campaigns, incentivised change, individually adapted health behaviour programs, family-based social support interventions and the provision of self-monitoring tools. However, the results must be interpreted holistically, as many of the successful interventions included more than one approach type and success is likely contingent on effectively addressing several concurrent facets.

To access the journal article, please click here.

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Women's diet and nutritional status during pregnancy are important in influencing birth outcomes. We conducted a systematic scoping review of the best available evidence regarding the dietary intake of Malaysian pregnant women, and the associations of maternal diet, anthropometry, and nutrition-related co-morbidities with the infant's birth weight (IBW). The study objectives were to examine: (1) the adequacy of micronutrient intake among pregnant women; and (2) the association of maternal factors (anthropometry, diet, plasma glucose and blood pressure) during pregnancy with IBW.

To access the journal article, please click here.

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Alternatives to Animal Testing in Food Safety, Nutrition and Efficacy Studies

NEW APPROACHES FOR FOOD SAFETY

Background: Methods and approaches that can be used in food and nutrition research are changing at a faster pace than ever. Whereas animal methods are mostly known for their use in food safety analysis (see Part I), they also play in important role in proof-of-concept and mechanistic studies of products, as well as studying potency, efficacy, and tolerance of foods and food ingredients. Members of the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) Europe have formed an expert group to review possibilities, opportunities, and challenges for the potential use of alternative testing strategies in nutrition research and regulatory requirements, supporting the 3Rs principle of Replacement, Reduction, Refinement of animal research, which can ultimately be used in support of regulatory submissions for pre-market authorisation.
Scope and approach: For the different areas of food for specific groups and health claims, the acceptability of non-animal approaches is evaluated in comparison to legislative requirements in Europe. The alternative approaches considered cover emerging tools and methodologies such as organoids, organs-on-a-chip or human in vitro gastrointestinal simulators.
Conclusions: In nutrition research, there has been a long tradition of following a certain experimental trajectory for grounding scientific hypotheses starting from in vitro data moving on to in vivo verification in a preferred animal model and finally proving this in a human setting. From a regulatory perspective there is no specific requirement for animal experimentation that justifies the use of the majority of animal experiments in the
assessment of nutritional content and value of food products. However, animal data are mostly considered as the standard, and guidance for alternative approaches that would be accepted is lacking. It is therefore important to further build evidence and offer validation for the adequacy of already existing in vitro tools to ensure their suitability for substantiating dose levels and further planning clinical trials. What are we waiting for? Keywords Expand

Non-animal testing, Nutrition research, Regulation

To download this open-access article, please click here.

This work was commissioned by the Alternatives to Animal Testing in Food Safety, Nutrition and Efficacy Studies Task Force.

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Food Allergy Task Force

NEW APPROACHES FOR FOOD SAFETY

Quantitative risk assessment (QRA) for allergens exists in many different forms with different requirements placed on the risk assessor depending on the question that needs to be answered. An electronic workshop held in October 2020 and comprising representatives from a wide range of food allergy and allergen stakeholder groups identified that a summary of current best in class guidance, identified gaps, potential improvements & harmonization of allergen QRA arising largely from cross contact would be very beneficial. The current manuscript provides an introduction to allergen QRA and an overview of inputs potentially needed for different QRA methods, when deemed feasible and necessary. It also introduces the European branch of the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI Europe) Expert Group (EG), created to attempt to achieve consensus on the methodologies needed for allergen QRAs by food business operators, and their implementation. Areas of focus include proactive assessments for food production under normal conditions, both in the upstream supply chain and in food production facilities, and reactive assessments as part of an allergen incident response. As a follow-up report to the October 2020 electronic workshop, the current manuscript provides an overview of allergen QRA and insights into the guidance being developed. This manuscript will itself be followed by more detailed guidance for allergen QRA published open access as an ILSI Europe report.

Link to download the full-text

Keywords Expand

Allergens; Quantitative risk assessment (QRA); Supply chain; Incidents; Cross-contact; Precautionary allergen labelling (PAL)

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The "totality" of the human exposure is conceived to encompass life-associated endogenous and exogenous aggregate exposures. Process-related contaminants (PRCs) are not only formed in foods by heat processing, but also occur endogenously in the organism as physiological components of energy metabolism, potentially also generated by the human microbiome. To arrive at a comprehensive risk assessment, it is necessary to understand the contribution of in vivo background occurrence as compared to the ingestion from exogenous sources. Hence, this review provides an overview of the knowledge on the contribution of endogenous exposure to the overall exposure to putative genotoxic food contaminants, namely ethanol, acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, acrylamide, acrolein, α,β-unsaturated alkenals, glycation compounds, N-nitroso compounds, ethylene oxide, furans, 2- and 3-MCPD, and glycidyl esters. The evidence discussed herein allows to conclude that endogenous formation of some contaminants appears to contribute substantially to the exposome. This is of critical importance for risk assessment in the cases where endogenous exposure is suspected to outweigh the exogenous one (e.g. formaldehyde and acrolein).

Link to download the full-text

Keywords Expand

Endogenous exposure; Exposome; Genotoxins; Process-related contaminants

Commissioned by the Food Contaminants Task Force.

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A systematic review was conducted on the efficacy of interventions to improve physical activity. PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science were scanned for eligible studies published from 1978 to August 2021, resulting in a total of 52 relevant studies for review. The Downs and Black checklist was used as a quality assessment tool for risk of bias assessment. The 52 studies were then broadly categorised into three major approach types: informational, behavioural and/or social, as well as direct. Within each major approach, studies were further sub-categorised into more specific intervention types before being assessed for their efficacy and applicability. Overall, the intervention types that seemed to be the most efficacious in increasing physical activity levels were those that involved home-based information provision, community-wide campaigns, incentivised change, individually adapted health behaviour programs, family-based social support interventions and the provision of self-monitoring tools. However, the results must be interpreted holistically, as many of the successful interventions included more than one approach type and success is likely contingent on effectively addressing several concurrent facets.

To access the journal article, please click here.

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