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Process guides to guarantee the safety of three Costa Rican artisanal dairy products

An important part of Costa Rican dairy products manufactured in an artisanal way, as in other countries in the region and the Caribbean, are made in small processing plants located in rural areas, sometimes with a low level of technification and with some opportunities for improvement. in compliance with Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP). There is also little scientific information available to producers on the most critical practices that must be followed to guarantee the safety of the products.

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Analysis of Overweight, Obesity, Physical Activity and Self-Estimation of Children in the Metropolitan Area of the Educational Region of Panama City, Panama

The high levels of overweight and obesity that produce diabetes, hypertension, and other chronic diseases are a public health threat that starts from childhood through the adult age, altering a person´s quality of life directly. The purpose of this study is to determine the levels of overweight and obesity, the levels of physical activity and self-esteem of children aging 9 to 13 years, in educational establishments from the center of Panama City, Panama.

Thirteen (13 educational centers participated pertaining to eight (8 territories from the capital of the country, where 748 students were evaluated. The instruments used to measure these variables were the measuring rod, the weight scale to measure the body mass index, the PAQ-C survey to measure the physical activity, and LAWSEQ to measure self-esteem in children. The studied population showed 17% of the students to be overweight, 13% obese, 70.05% with moderate physical activity, and 25.67% with low levels of physical activity. As far as self-esteem is concerned, 50.5% showed average self-esteem and 44% low self-esteem.

In conclusion, it is important to perform physical activities as prevention and attention actions to obesity, overweight, and improvement of self-esteem. e analysis of the results indicates a higher prevalence of obesity in girls, and greater levels of physical activity in boys, in the case of self-esteem, age plays an important role in personal perception, especially in the female sex.

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Micronutrients inadequacy in urban population of Costa Rica

Micronutrient deficiencies are still very common in developing countries. In Costa Rica there is little information on micronutrients intake and the impact of food fortification.This study aimed to determine the contribution of food fortification to the total intake, and to estimate the risk of inadequate intake of vitamins and minerals in an urban Costa Rican population.

As a part of the Latin American Nutrition and Health Study, we analyzed data from a nationally representative sampleof 798 urban residents from Costa Rica (15-65 years old) whom provided two 24-h dietary recalls.

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Dietary Diversity and Micronutrients Adequacy in Women of Childbearing Age: Results from ELANS Study

Dietary diversity, an important component of diet quality, is associated with an increased probability of adequate micronutrient intake. Women of childbearing age (WCA) are particularly vulnerable to micronutrient inadequacy. The Minimum Dietary Diversity for Women (MDD-W) has been used widely as a proxy measurement of micronutrient adequacy. This study aimed to assess the association between MDD-W and nutrients adequacy among WCA of eight Latin American countries. Nutrient intakes from 3704 WCA were analyzed with two 24-hour dietary recalls.

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Fruits and vegetables intake among Costa Rican urban population: results from the Latin American Study of Nutrition and Health: ELANS-Costa Rica

Consumption of fruit and vegetables has been widely associated with different health benefits such as protection against non-transmissible chronic diseases, cancer and mental disorders. Due to these benefits, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends daily consumption of 400 grams of fruit and vegetables. This study is aimed at characterize fruit and vegetable consumption according to socioeconomic variables, among the Costa Rican population and the degree to which this meets the WHO recommended intake.

Average daily consumption of fruit and vegetables was 220g/p/d and increased with age (p=0.035 between with 15-19 and 50-65 years old) and socioeconomic status (p=0.004 between low and middle). No association was found with gender or education level (p>0.05). Only 12.0 % of the urban Costa Rican population met the WHO recommendation

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